A Brief History of SQL

by Vickram H 2012-07-30 15:16:05

A Brief History of SQL


The history of the SQL language is intimately intertwined with the development of relational databases. Table 3-1 shows some of the milestones in its 30-year history. The relational database concept was originally developed by Dr. E.F. "Ted" Codd, an IBM researcher. In June 1970 Dr. Codd published an article entitled "A Relational Model of Data for Large Shared Data Banks" that outlined a mathematical theory of how data could be stored and manipulated using a tabular structure. Relational databases and SQL trace their origins to this article, which appeared in the Communications of the Association for Computing Machinery.

  • 1970 Codd defines relational database model


  • 1974 IBM's System/R project begins


  • 1974 First article describing the SEQUEL language


  • 1978 System/R customer tests


  • 1979 Oracle introduces first commercial RDBMS


  • 1981 Relational Technology introduces Ingres


  • 1981 IBM announces SQL/DS


  • 1982 ANSI forms SQL standards committee


  • 1983 IBM announces DB2


  • 1986 ANSI SQL1 standard ratified


  • 1986 Sybase introduces RDBMS for transaction processing


  • 1987 ISO SQL1 standard ratified


  • 1988 Ashton-Tate and Microsoft announce SQL Server for OS/2


  • 1989 First TPC benchmark (TPC-A) published


  • 1990 TPC-B benchmark published


  • 1991 SQL Access Group database access specification published


  • 1992 Microsoft publishes ODBC specification


  • 1992 ANSI SQL2 standard ratified


  • 1992 TPC-C (OLTP) benchmark published


  • 1993 First shipment of specialized SQL data warehousing systems


  • 1993 First shipment of ODBC products


  • 1994 TPC-D (decision support) benchmark published


  • 1994 Commercial shipment of parallel database server technology


  • 1996 Publication of standard API for OLAP database access and OLAP benchmark


  • 1997 IBM DB2 UDB unifies DB2 architecture across IBM and other vendor platforms


  • 1997 Major DBMS vendors announce Java integration strategies


  • 1998 Microsoft SQL Server 7 provides enterprise-level database support for Windows NT


  • 1998 Oracle 8i provides database/Internet integration and moves away from client/server model



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