how woreless endoscopy work??

by barkkathulla 2012-09-18 08:59:08


Any one who has had a traditional endoscopy will know the procedure is an unpleasant experience. A pill sized capsule is certainly a more preferable way to capture pictures of your insides, particularly if it replaces the need for a Barium meal, Pushendoscopy or xray.And signs are it could be more effective.
Today, the technology is expanding the ability to diagnose certain diseases such as Crohn’s diseases and small intestinal tumors not visible with current radiological imaging techniques and its applications to a broader patient pool, including 11 to 18 year olds. But the design challenges were not insignificant
As patient go about their normal activities, the capsule collect images and transmits them using RF. A vest mounted antenna array picks up the images and stores them on a belt mounted data recorder. After the camera has passed through the system, after the patients returns the vest and the data recorder to the doctor, who then download the images to given’s RAPID (reporting and processing of images and data) software. This procedures 20 minutes video of the patient’s gastrointestinal tract, which the doctor can then scan for abnormalities.
Chip size was the primary design limitations, as the capsule must be swallowable.The capsule is 11*26mm and weights less than 4g.

communication channel switching nodes

Switching nodes:
The base station is controlled via the Mobile Switching Centre (MSC). This switching node assumes all the technical functions of a landline network switching node, for example, path search, signal path switching and processing of supplementary services. If there is a requirement for a connection to a subscriber in the landline network, this is forwarded by the MSC to the landline network over a switching path.
In order that the network provider is in a position to provide all the services for which demand exists, it must store various items of data. For example, it must know which subscribers are using its network and which services they wish to use. This data, such as the name of the subscriber, his customer number and the services he requires, is stored in the Home Location Register (HLR).
If a connection is to be established, for example from a landline network connection to a mobile phone, the network provider needs to know where the subscriber is and whether his mobile phone is switched on.
To check whether a subscriber is entitled to use the mobile telecommunication network (i.e. he has taken out a card contract), the network provider maintains an Authentication Centre (AUC). This holds algorithms and subscriber-related keys which amongst other things are required during authentication.
The network provider can also maintain the Equipment Identity Register ( EIR), which holds details of all the mobile transceivers permitted on the network, broken down into three groups known as the white, grey and black lists. The white list is a register of all the mobile phones which are functioning reliably, the grey list contains all the phones which may possibly be defective, while the black list holds details of all the phones which either have a fault or have been reported stolen. However, not all network providers maintain an equipment register.

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